systematic position

Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. (2000) 41: 159-163

Wang and Hong Campanula gansuensis sp. nov. (Campanulaceae)

Campanula gansuensis (Campanulaceae), a new species from China, and its systematic position

Lan-Zhou Wang1,3 and De-Yuan Hong2

1 Department of Biology, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, Gansu, China

2 Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica, Beijing 100044, China

(Received May 17, 1999; Accepted September 29, 1999)

Abstract. In this paper, a new species of Campanula, C. gansuensis L.Z. Wang et D.Y. Hong from Gansu is described and illustrated. According to an analysis of the distribution and main characters of 21 taxa of Campanula indigenous to China, C. gansuensis is a distinct species in sect. Campanula. Based on the reflexed appendage in each sinus of the calyx, it is somewhat similar to C. punctata Lam. and C. sibirica L., but differs in its annual habit and small green corolla. It is very rare and only found in Mayanhe, a village in the mountains of Hui Xian, in the West Qinling mountains of Gansu province, at ca. 1,100 m elevation. A key is provided to aid in the identification of the 22 taxa of Campanula in China.

Keywords: Campanula gansuensis; Campanulaceae; China; New species; West Qinling mountain.

In June-July 1998, we collected an unusual specimen of Campanulaceae during a survey of plants in the forest zone of Mayanhe village, Hui Xian in Gansu province, China, on the south mountain slopes of the west Qingling Mountains. This specimen was determined to be a member of the genus Campanula L. This genus comprises over 250 species of perennial (sometimes annual or biennial) herbs, almost all restricted to the northern hemisphere (Bailey, 1925; Mabberley, 1990). Of these, 21 occur in China (Hong, 1980, 1983; How, 1982).

In order to determine the species to which the specimen belonged, the key characters and distributions of all 21 known taxa of Campanula in China were analyzed (see Table 1).

From Table 1, we find that this collection is quite different from other Chinese species of Campanula and merits recognition as a distinct species:

Campanula gansuensis L.Z. Wang & D.Y. Hong, sp. nov. TYPE: CHINA: Gansu province, Hui Xian, Mayanhe, on mosses, in a village between mountains, 1042015E, 334510N, ca. 1,100 m alt., 6 Jul 1998, Lan-Zhou Wang 98008 (holotype: NWUB; isotype: HAST).̵­a Figure 1

Species a sect. Campanula insignis floribus sui viridibus, a speciebus nobis notis bene distincta; appendice inter sepala C. punctata Lam. et C. sibirica L. similis et nullo dubio his speciebus proxima, praecipue differt a C. punctata caule non nisi 5-6 cm alto; a C. sibirica parvis maculis.

Figure 1. C. gansuensis. 1. Habit, showing flowering stem and leaves; 2. Leaf, showing pubescence; 3. Flower, showing an appendage reflexed at base of each sinus; 4. Stamen, showing anther, filaments dilated at base, hairy (from Lan-Zhou Wang 98008[HAST], illustrated by Jian-Lu Bai).

3Corresponding author. Tel: 86-0931-7972508 (Home), 86-0931-7971414 (Office); Fax: 86-0931-7663356.


Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, Vol. 41, 2000

Table 1. Distribution and main characters of taxa of Campanula in China.

Taxa Distributiona Habit Roots Appendage Color of corolla Spots at Plantsheight in sepals corolla

1 C. gansuensis Gansu Annual Slender Yes Green Blotched Under 10 cm 2 C. punctata 1 Perennial Slender Yes White Punctum Over 10 cm

3 C. sibirica Xinjiang Perennial Thick Yes Light blue-purple No Over 10 cm

4 C. glomerata Xinjiang Perennial Thick No Purple-blue No Over 10 cm

5 ssp. cephalotes DB Perennial Thick No Purple-blue No Over 10 cm

6 ssp. daqingshanica Neimenggu Perennial Thick No Purple-blue No Over 10 cm

7 C. glomeratoides Xizang - - No Blue No Over 10 cm

8 C. nakaoi Xizang Perennial Slender No Blue, blue-purple No Over 10 cm

9 C. langsdorffiana DB Perennial Slender No Light blue No Over 10 cm

10 C. colorata XN Perennial Thick No Purple-blue No Over 10 cm

11 C. cana XN Perennial Thick No Purple-blue No Over 10 cm

12 C. chinensis Yunnan, Xizang Perennial Thick No Blue, purple-blue No Over 10 cm

13 C. yunnanensis Yunnan Perennial Thick No Purple, purple-blue No Over 10 cm

14 C. mekongensis Yunnan, Guangxi Perennial Thick No Blue or white No Over 10 cm

15 C. dimorphantha 2 Annual Thick No Purple, blue-purple No Over 10 cm

16 C. albertii Xinjiang Perennial Slender No Purple No Over 10 cm

17 C. delavayi Yunnan Perennial Thick No Blue, purple No Over 10 cm

18 C. crenulata Yunnan, Sichuan Perennial Thick No Blue, purple-red No Over 10 cm

19 C. calcicola Yunnan, Sichuan Perennial Thick No Purple, blue-purple No Over 10 cm

20 C. chrysosplenifolia Yunnan Perennial Thick No Blue No Over 10 cm

21 C. aristata 3 Perennial Thick No Blue, Blue-purple No Over 10 cm

22 C. immodesta 4 Perennial Thick No Blue, purple-blue No Over 10 cm

aDistribution (Provinces): DB=Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning; XN=Xizang, Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou; 1=Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Neimenggu, Hebei, Shanxi, Henan, Shaanxi, Gansu, Sichuan, Hubei; 2=Taiwan, Guangdong, Yunnan, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Guizhou; 3=Xizang, Yunnan, Sichuan, Qinghai, Gansu, Shaanxi; 4=Xizang, Yunnan, Sichuan.

Figure 2. Distribution of C. gansuensis in Gansu province, China (illustrated by Jian-Lu Bai).


Wang and Hong Campanula gansuensis sp. nov. (Campanulaceae)

Very slender annual herbs more or less hairy, root slender. Stem 5-6 cm high, simple, with 2-3 leaves. Leaves alternate, triangular-ovate or rhombic-ovate, ca. 1 cm long and 5-6 mm wide; apex obtuse, margins sparsely and irregularly serrate; base narrowed into a winged petiole, ca. 0.5 cm long. Flower solitary, terminal on branches, pendulous. Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary, lobes 5, long triangular, with an ovate appendage reflexed from each sinus, margins glabrous. Corolla green, tube bell-shaped, to 0.8 cm long, 5-lobed to about one-third the depth, and mostly spotted within. Stamens 5, inserted at corolla base; filaments separate, dilated at base, hairy; anthers yellow, long clavate, ca. 3 mm long. Ovary inferior, half-globose, obovate-awl-shaped, not surrounded by a fleshy disc. Style 1, to 4 mm long, longer than corolla. Caspules and seeds not seen. Flowering in July.

Distribution and Notes. Extremely rare, presently known only from the village of Mayanhe, Huixian county of Gansu (Figure 2). Campanula gansuensis occurs in the mosses of a mountain stream, associated with Oxalis

corniculata L., often growing under shrubs such as Hydrangea longipes Franch., Cotoneaster acutifolius Turcz., Rosa omeiensis Rolfe, R. bella Rehd. & Wils., etc.

All taxa of Campanula in China belong to two sections [cf. deCandolle (1830) and Boissier (1875)]: sect. Campanula, with the capsule opening at the base, and sect. Rapunculus (Fourr.) Boiss., with it opening at the middle or top. Though capsules are lacking in our specimen, in China, only two species of sect. Campanula have a reflexed appendage in each sinus of the calyx as seen in C. gansuensis; the other species do not. Based on this, C. gansuensis should belong to the sect. Campanula, making it the third species of that section indigenous to China that has such appendages. Campanula gansuensis is a very distinctive member of sect. Campanula, somewhat resembling C. punctata Lam. and C. sibirica L., but distinct in its annual habit, stems only ca. 6 cm high, and corolla green. The following key is provided to aid in the identification of the 22 taxa of Campanula indigenous to China.

Key to taxa of Campanula in China

1. Capsule opening near the base (sect. Campanula).

2. Calyx with an appendage reflexed in each sinus.

3. Corolla purple spotted within.

4. Perennial, 25-100 cm high, corolla long-bell-shaped, 3-6.5 cm long, white C. punctata Lam.

4. Annual, ca. 6 cm high, corolla short-bell-shaped, ca. 0.6 cm long, green C. gansuensis L.Z. Wang & Hong

3. Corolla not spotted, narrowly bell-shaped, to 1.5 cm long, blue purple C. sibirica L.

2. Calyx without appendages.

5. Flowers 2 or numerous in compact capitate; leaves 4-17 cm long.

6. Lower cauline leaves very long-petioled; calyx-lobes linear.

7. Capitate numerous; leaves nearly glabrous.

8. Stem unbranched; leaves 4-13 1.5-3.5 cm C. glomerata L. subsp. glomerata

8. Stem sometimes branched; leaves 7-15 1.7-7 cm C. glomerata subsp. cephalotes (Fisch. ex Schrank) Hong

7. Capitate few; leaves long hispid-hairy C. glomerata subsp. daqingshanica Hong et Zhao.

6. Lower cauline leaves with short winged petiole; calyx-lobes broad-lanceolate C. glomeratoides Hong

5. Flowers solitary or spreading racemose, but not clustered; leaves under 6 cm long.

9. Leaves glabrous or hairy only at margin; corolla glabrous; calyx-lobes linear or small, glabrous or hairy only at margin.

10. Leaves and calyx-lobes with short hispid-hairs at the margin; cauline leaves obovate elliptic or elliptic C. nakaoi Kitam.

10. Leaves and calyx-lobes glabrous; cauline leaves linear C. langsdorffiana Fisch. ex Trautv. & Mey.

9. Leaves rough-hairy; corolla hairy; calyx-lobes narrowly triangular or triangular and hairy.

11. Annual; with basal-leaves at flowering; compact cymes at side branches C. dimorphantha Schweinf. (= C. canescens Wall. ex A. DC.)

11. Perennial; without basal-leaves at flowering; simple cymes or solitary at side branches.

12. Calyx-tube usually glabrous; several flowers at side branches; calyx-lobes narrow, prominent C. mekongensis Diels ex C.Y. Wu

12. Calyx-tube densely hairy; solitary or simple inflorescence at side branches; calyx-lobes wide, triangular.


Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, Vol. 41, 2000

13. Calyx-lobes nearly triangular, margins 2-dentate; stem long and spreading; basal leaves often disappearing by flowering time; leaves rotund C. yunnanensis Hong

13. Calyx-lobes subulate-triangular to narrowly triangular, triangular, margins dentate or not; stem erect or ascending, usually with leaves at flowering time; leaves elliptic or elliptic-linear.

14. Style longer than corolla; anthers adnate into a tube C. chinensis Hong

14. Style shorter than or as long as corolla; anthers separate.

15. Calyx-lobes subulate-triangular to narrowly triangular; the underside of leaves rarely felt-hairy; stem spreading C. cana Wall.

15. Calyx-lobes narrowly triangular to triangular, the underside of leaves more or less hispid-hairy; stem erect or ascending C. colorata Wall.

1. Capsule opening about the middle (sect. Rapunculus).

16. Calyx-lobes nearly silky-linear, longer than or as long as corolla; capsule opening at top; stem unbranched.

17. Ovary and capsule nearly cylindrical, ovary 5-15 mm long and capsule 2-4 cm long; stem 10-50 cm high; cauline-leaves 1.5-7 cm long C. aristata Wall.

17. Ovary and capsule obovate-awl-shaped, ovary 3-6 mm long and capsule 0.7-2 cm long; stem 5-22 cm high; cauline-leaves up to 2 cm long C. immodesta Lammers (= C. modesta Hook. f. & Thoms., nom. illeg.)

16. Calyx-lobes subulate, subulate-triangular or wide-linear, much shorter than corolla; capsule opening about the middle; stem branched or not.

18. Basal leaves oblong-linear; cauline leaves linear, more than 2 cm long; capsule big, elliptic, 1.2-1.6 cm long; plant with slender rootstocks C. albertii Trautv.

18. Basal leaves and the lower cauline ovate, cordate or reniform; cauline-leaves not linear, otherwise short; capsule usually small; plant without slender rootstocks.

19. Plant large, 20-50 cm high, the lower cauline leaves 1-3 cm long, cordate or cordate-rotund C. delavayi Franch.

19. Plant small, 6-30 cm high, the leaves at the base of stem much smaller than others, linear to ovate-rotund.

20. Flower pendulous or horizontal; calyx-tube obconical C. crenulata Franch.

20. Flower erect or ascending; calyx-tube usually obovate or obovate-conical.

21. Stem slender, basal leaves cordate-reniform; leaves in lower half of stem cordate to ovate-lanceolate C. calcicola W.W. Sm.

21. Stem silky, glabrous, basal leaves cordate; leaves in lower half of stem linear C. chrysosplenifolia Franch.

Phytotax. Sin. 18(2): 245-247. (in Chinese)

Hong, D.Y. 1980. Homocodon Hong a new genus of Campanulaceae from China. Act. Phytotax. Sin. 18(4): 473- 475. (in Chinese)

Hong, D.Y. 1983. Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae tomus 73(2). Science Press, Beijing, pp.78-92. (in Chinese)

How, F.C. (Revised by T.L. Wu, W.C. Ko and T.C. Chen et al.). 1982. A Dictionary of the Families and Genera of Chinese Seed Plants. Science Press, Beijing, pp. 81. (in Chinese)

Mabberley, D.J. 1990. The Plant-Book. A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambrige, New York, pp. 95.

Acknowledgments. We thank Drs. Thomas G. Lammers, Tatyana Shulkina, and Ching-I Peng for useful comments on the manuscript; Jian-lu Bai, who is working in Northwest Normal University of China, for the illustration. This study was supported in part by research grants from the Gansus Youth Nature Science Fund, Gansu to Lan-Zhou Wang.

Literature Cited

Bailey, L.H. 1925. Manual of Cultivated Plants. The Macmillan Company, New York, pp. 740-744.

Hong, D.Y. 1980. New taxa of Campanulaceae from Xizang. Act.


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Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, Vol. 41, 2000