Botanical Studies (2008) 49: 161-165.
*
Corresponding author: E-mail: lkming8@yahoo.com.cn;
Tel: 86-731-887-2864.
TAXONOMY
Impatiens fugongensis (Balsaminaceae), a new species
from Yunnan, China
Yi-Yan CONG, Ke-Ming LIU*, Xiu-Zhen CAI, and Shu-Zhen TIAN
Department of Botany, College of Life Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410081, Hunan, P. R. China
(Received June 25, 2007; Accepted November 7, 2007)
ABSTRACT.
A new species of Impatiens L., I. fugongensis K. M. Liu et Y. Y. Cong, sp. nov., is
described and illustrated. The species is restricted to the wet evergreen broad-leaved montane forests of
Gaoligong Mountain in Northwestern Yunnan, China. Diagnostic morphological characters and seedcoat
micromorphological characters that distinguish the new species from the related species, I. xanthina Comber
and I. monticola Hook. f., are discussed.
Keywords: Balsaminaceae; China; Impatiens; Impatiens fugongensis; Micromorphology; New species;
Seedcoat; Yunnan.
INTRODUCTION
The genus Impatiens L. (Balsaminaceae), including
about 900 species worldwide (Yuan et al., 2004), mainly
occurs in mountains of tropical and subtropical regions
from India to southeastern Asia. Most of the species have
very restricted distributions (Fischer and Rahelivololona,
2002). About 240 species have been reported from China
(Chen, 2001; Jin and Ding, 2002; Huang et al., 2003), and
most of them occur in southwestern China.
Since 1999 we have studied the taxonomy and
pollination ecology of Impatiens (Liu, 1999; Tian et al.,
2004). During a recent scientific survey of Gaoligong
Mountain National Nature Reserve, northwestern Yunnan,
an apparently new species of Impatiens was discovered by
the authors. After carefully studying the morphology and
seedcoat micromorphology of the species and the related
species, and consulting the literature (Xiong and Luo,
1988; Chen, 2001; Huang, 2006), we concluded that these
plants represent a new species.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Seeds used for observations were collected in the field
during the autumns of 2005 and 2006. Voucher specimens
were deposited in the Herbarium of Hunan Normal
University (HNNU; Table 1). For scanning electron
microscopy, dried mature seeds were mounted on stubs,
using double-sided adhesive tape, and coated with about 2
nm of gold with a JFC-1600 sputter coater. Coated seeds
were then examined and photographed with the JEOL
JSM-6360LV scanning electron microscope.
SPECIES DESCRIPTION
Impatiens fugongensis K. M. Liu et Y. Y. Cong, sp.
nov.—TYPE: CHINA. Northwestern Yunnan Province:
Fugong County, Gaoligong Mountain, alt. 2,200 m, on
the damp cliff, 12 Oct 2006, Liu Ke-Ming & Cong Yi-
Yan 791378 (holotype: HNNU; isotypes KUN, HNNU).
Figure 1
Species haec I. xanthinae Comber similis, sed foliis
ellipticis vel suborbicularibus, apice obtuso-acutis vel
obtuso-rotundatis, nervis lateralibus 5-7-jugis, bracteis
caducis, sepalis inferioribus cornutis, pubescentibus,
lobis superioribus petalorum lateralium longe ellipticis
facile differt. A I. monticola Hook. f. caulibus 5.5-9
cm altis, foliis ellipticis vel suborbicularibus, bracteis
caducis, floribus 14-17 mm longis, pubescentibus, sepalis
inferioribus cornutis, lobis superioribus petalorum
lateralium longe elliptiscis diversa.
Annual herb, 5.5-9 cm tall. Stem erect, often purple-
red, base slightly prostrate, densely white hairy (brown
when dry), 1-3 branched from base, simple above. Leaves
alternate, crowded at upper part, petiolate; petiole 6-10
mm, densely white hairy; lamina elliptic to suborbicular,
2.6-4 × 1.1-2.2 cm, adaxially white hairy, abaxially along
veins white hairy, lateral veins 5-7 pairs, base broadly
cuneate, with 2 or 3 pairs of glandular hairs, margin
coarsely crenate-denticulate, setose in between marginal
teeth, apex obtuse-acute or obtuse-rounded. Inflorescences
in upper leaf axils, racemose, 2-3-flowered; peduncles
erect, 15-20 mm, densely white hairy. Pedicels 7-10 mm,
densely white hairy, bracteate at base; bracts lanceolate,
caduceus, abaxially white hairy. Flower golden-yellow,
smaller, 14-17 mm long. Lateral sepals 2, green, ovate-
elliptic, 2.8-3.1 × 1.7-1.9 mm, 3-veined, apex shortly
acuminate, abaxially long white hairy. Lower sepal
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Botanical Studies, Vol. 49, 2008
Figure 1. Illustration of Impatiens fugongensis K. M. Liu & Y. Y. Cong (drawn by Li-Han Liu from the holotype). A, Habit; B, Basal
portion of abaxial leaf surface; C, Flower, lateral view; D, Flower, anterior view; E, Lateral sepals; F, Dorsal petal; G, Lateral united
petals; H, Lower sepal; I, Gynoecium; J, Androecium; K, Transverse section of fruit; L, Fruit; M, Seeds.
pg_0003
CONG et al. — A new species of
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163
cornute, depth of lower sepal from pedicel to base of
spur 18-21 mm, sparsely pubescent outside, mouth ca.
4.5 mm wide, anterior acute, base gradually narrowed
into an incurved spur 15-18 mm. Dorsal petal galeiform,
orbicular, 5.8-6 × 4-4.2 mm, base broadly cuneate, apex
obtuse-rounded, abaxial midvein slightly thickened,
sparsely white hairy. Lateral united petals sessile, 12-14
mm long, 2-lobed, upper lobes narrowly elliptic, ca. 2
mm wide, apex obtuse-acute; lower lobes dolabriform-
triangular, 8-10 × 5-7 mm, apically retuse, abaxial auricle
absent. Stamens 5, ca. 2 mm long, filaments linear, free
for about 1/2 their length; anthers ovoid, joined into a ring
surrounding the ovary apex, apex obtuse. Ovary superior,
5-carpellate, placentation axile, fusiform, ca. 3 mm long,
erect, style 1. Capsule green, broadly fusiform, 5-angled,
ca. 10 × ca. 4 mm, apex acute, rostellate, 5-valved, fleshy;
seeds elliptic, 1.5-1.9 × 0.7-1.1 mm, yellow-brown.
Paratype. CHINA. Northwestern Yunnan Province:
Fugong County, Gaoligong Mountain, alt. 2,200 m, on
the damp cliff, 13 Oct 2006, Liu Ke-Ming & Cong Yi-Yan
791412 (HNNU).
Phenology. Flowering from August to October; fruiting
from September to November. Flower visitors (insects of
Hymenoptera) were seen in the field.
Ecology. On moist limestone rocks in wet evergreen
broad-leaved montane forests, at 2,100-2,500 m elevation.
Distribution. Fugong County, Northwestern Yunnan
Province, China; known only from the type locality.
DISCUSSION
Impatiens fugongensis K. M. Liu et Y. Y. Cong
resembles I. xanthina Comber in having leaves crowded
at the upper part of stem and branches, a galeiform
standard, and a broadly fusiform capsule. However, it
differs in having elliptic to suborbicular lamina with apex
obtuse-acute or obtuse-rounded, lateral veins (5-7 pairs),
caduceus bracts, a cornute lower sepal, outside hair,
narrowly elliptic upper lobes of lateral united petals with
no purple-tinged flecks at base, and dolabriform-triangular
lower lobes. I. fugongensis K. M. Liu et Y. Y. Cong is also
Table 1. Source of materials.
Species
Locality
Voucher
Impatiens fugongensis K. M. Liu et Y. Y. Cong Yunnan, China
K. M. Liu & Y. Y. Cong 791378 (HNNU)
Impatiens xanthina Comber
Yunnan, China
K. M. Liu & Y. Y. Cong 791366 (HNNU)
Impatiens monticola Hook. f.
Sichuan, China
K. M. Liu & Y. Y. Cong 791448 (HNNU)
Table 2. Comparison between Impatiens fugongensis, I. monticola, and I. xanthina.
Characters Impatiens fugongensis
Impatiens monticola
Impatiens xanthina
Plant height 5.5-9 cm
30-60 cm
6-20 cm
Lamina
Elliptic to suborbicular, 2.6-4 ×
1.1-2.2 cm, apex obtuse-acute or
obtuse-rounded, lateral veins 5-7
pairs
Ovate-elliptic or obovate, 3-13
× 3-4.5 cm, apex acuminate,
lateral veins 5-7 pairs
Lanceolate, elliptic-lanceolate, or
oblong-spatulate, 4.5-7 × 1.5-2
cm, apex acute or acuminate,
lateral veins 7-9 pairs
Bracts
Caducous
Persistent
Persistent
Inflorescences 2-3-flowered in a raceme
2-flowered in a raceme
1-2-flowered in a raceme
Flower length 14-17 mm
ca. 35 mm
20-25 mm
Lateral sepals Ovate-elliptic, 2.8-3.1 × 1.7-1.9 mm,
abaxially long white hairy
Ovate or orbicular, 6-10 × 6-8
mm, glabrous
Triangular-ovate, ca. 9 mm,
glabrous
Lower sepal Cornute, sparsely pubescent,
base gradually narrowed into an
incurved spur15-18 mm
Navicular, glabrous, base
gradually narrowed into an
incurved spur 23-36 mm
Narrowly infundibular, glabrous,
base gradually narrowed into an
involute spur 22-25 mm
Dorsal petal 5.8-6 mm long, not purple-tinged
flecks at base
13-15 mm long, not purple-tinged
flecks at base
6-17 mm long, purple-tinged
flecks at base
Lateral united
petals
12-14 mm long, upper lobes
narrowly elliptic, not purple-
tinged flecks at base; lower lobes
dolabriform-triangular
20-25 mm long, upper lobes
suborbicular, not purple-tinged
flecks at base; lower lobes
dolabriform
15-16 mm long, upper lobes
orbicular , purple-tinged flecks
at base; lower lobes dolabriform
or ovate-dolabriform
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Botanical Studies, Vol. 49, 2008
similar to I. monticola Hook. f. by its lateral veins (5-7
pairs), 2-3 flowers in a raceme, dolabriform-triangular
lower lobes of lateral united petals, and a broadly fusiform
capsule, but differs in having stems 5.5-9 cm tall, elliptic
to suborbicular lamina, caduceus bracts, hairy flowers
14-17 cm long, ovate-elliptic lateral sepals, cornute lower
sepal, and narrowly elliptic upper lobes of lateral united
petals. More detailed morphological comparisons of these
three species are given in Table 2.
In addition, seedcoat micromorphological characters
also differentiate Impatiens fugongensis from I. xanthina
and I. monticola. In I. fugongensis, seeds are elliptic
(Figure 2A), and some of the epidermal cells of the
seedcoat protrude significantly to form squamalate
projections that are oblong and have conspicuous pits
(Figure 2B, C); while in I. xanthina, seeds are ovate
(Figure 2D), and some of the epidermal cells of the
seedcoat protrude significantly to form cristate protrusions
which are spirally thickened (Figure 2E, F). Seedcoat of I.
monticola is similar to that of I. fugongensis, but differs in
having elliptic, squamalate projections with margins rolled
inward (Figure 2G, H) and more pits on the squamalate,
which are sometimes connected with each other by
grooves (Figure 2I).
Acknowledgements. The study was supported by the
National Natural Science Foundation of China, Grant
Nos. 39899400 and 30470130, and a Key Knowledge
Figure 2. SEM micrographs of seedcoat of Impatiens fugongensis, I. xanthina, and I. monticola. A-C, I. fugongensis. A, Entire seed;
B, Detail seedcoat; C, Squamalate projections under high magnification. D-F, I. xanthina. D, Entire seed; E, Detail seedcoat; F, Cristate
projections under high magnification. G-I, I. monticola. G, Entire seed; H, Detail seedcoat; I, Squamalate projections under high
magnification.
pg_0005
CONG et al. — A new species of
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165
中國雲南產鳳仙花科一新種:福貢鳳仙花
叢義豔 劉克明 蔡秀珍 田淑珍
中國湖南師½大學 生命科學學院植物學系
本文記述並描繪鳳仙花科(Balsaminaceae 鳳仙花屬之新種,福貢鳳仙花(Impatiens fugongensis
K. M. Liu et Y. Y. Congd 此種特產且局限分佈于雲南西北部高黎貢山常綠闊葉林中。 本文討½了與新
種近½種,山地鳳仙花(I. monticola Hook. f.)和金黃鳳仙花I. xanthina Comber 與新種在形態上和
種皮微形態上的區別。
關鍵詞:鳳仙花科;鳳仙花屬;福貢鳳仙花(新種);微形態;種皮;中國;雲南。
Innovation Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Grant No. KSCX-SW-122, and the Ministry of Science
and Technology of China, Grant No. 2005DKA21006.
We are grateful to Mr. Hui-jun Guo, vice director of
Yunnan Forestry Department, for his kind help during the
fieldwork, and to Prof. Chun-lin Long, Dr. Zhi-ling Dao,
and Dr. Guang-wan Hu, Kunming Institute of Botany, the
Chinese Academy of Sciences, for their help and support
during our visit to KUN. We also thank Prof. Lin-han Liu
for the excellent illustration.
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Huang, S .H., Y.M. S hui, and W.H. Chen. 2003. Ne w ta xa
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Xiong, Y.X. and Y.C. Luo. 1988. Balsaminaceae. In Y. K. Li
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