Botanical Studies
The Botanical Studies, p u bl i sh ed q u ar ter l y, i s
spo nsor ed by the Inst itu te of Plant an d Microb ial
Biology, Academia Sini ca, and accepts both o ri ginal
papers and review papers on all aspects of plant science.
Contributions are welcomed from researchers worldwide.
Papers submitted to the Botanical Studies mu st be
previously unpublished. Reviews may be either invited or
unsolicited. All work must be submitted in English. There
are no page charges.
I. Copyright
By submitting a manuscript to Botanical Studies, the
au thor(s) agrees that upon accept ance fo r pub licatio n
in the Botanical Studies, the copy right t o the entire
manuscript becomes the property of the Institute of Plant
and Microbial Biology, Academia Sinica, Taiwan. If the
author(s) does not have clear title to the copyright of any
part of the manuscript, written permission to publish must
be acquired from the copyright holder and presented to
the editor of the Botanical Studies.
Permission for fair use of Documents (such as articles,
information documents) from the Server http://ejournal.
sinica.edu.tw/bbas/ is granted fo r teachin g, research,
scholarly or personal uses. Documents must not be copied
or p osted on any netwo rk co mpu ter, rep ubli sh ed or
broadcasted in any medium. Legitimate quotations must
be accompanied by a complete reference to the originating
journal and to the Web server. Use for any other purpose
needs permission from the editor of the Botanical Studies.
II. Submission of Manuscripts
Manuscripts should be submitted in electronic format
b y p ost , el ect ron ic-m ai l, o r man uscrip ts sh ou ld be
submitted as a single Adobe Acrobat (PDF) file and
should be presented in accordance with the text. All
manuscripts should be accompanied by a covering letter.
This form of submission will expedite the processing
of the paper because it is the format used for reviewing.
Manuscripts not submitted in PDF format must be in
one of our specified formats and will be returned to the
corresponding author as a PDF file for approval before
being sent to referees. IMPORTANT: Note that Chinese,
Japanese, and Korean fonts must be imbedded in a PDF
d ocument file when submitted, otherwise the editorial
office will not be able to view the submitted manuscript.
By post:
Sen d the disk and two hig h quality, o ne colu mn,
double-spaced printouts to the managing editor at:
Editorial Office
Botanical Studies
Institute of Plant and Microbial Biology
Academia Sinica
Taipei, TAIWAN 11529
We can accept 3.5" disk or CD-ROM (PC formatted).
Please identify the disk by labelling it with the names of
Instructions to Authors
(revised January 2008)
the authors and title of the manuscript.
Via email:
Manuscripts should be sent to: bbas@gate.sinica.edu.
For manuscript file(s) exceeding 5 MB, the on-line
submission is recommended.
Other formats
Manuscripts not submitted in PDF should be prepared
using Microsoft Word or WordPerfect for the PC. All
elements should be included in one single file (Title Page,
Abstract, Text, References, Figure Legends, Tables and
Figures). Alternatively, send an DOC (Microsoft Word)
file. If figures are not included in the text, they should be
submitted as JPG, GIF, and should be clearly numbered . If
figures (and photographs) are not available electronically,
p lease send on e h igh-q ual ity h ard cop y suitabl e for
Covering Letter
In the covering letter authors should state that all the
material is original (excluding Reviews), that no part
has been submitted for publication elsewhere, and that
all authors have agreed to submission. Other additional
information may be included, e.g. section heading for
the manuscript to appear in the journal. IMPORTANT:
Do not include the covering letter in the body of the
III. Format for Accepted Manuscripts
Aut h or s o f accept ed m anu scri pt s wi ll b e as ked
t o sup ply one hi gh q uality, dou ble-spaced p rint out s
together with an electronic copy. At that stage, the file
containing all the text elements (Title Page, Abstract,
Text, References, Figure Legends and Tables) should be
provided as Microsoft Word, WordPerfect for the RTF.
Figures should be saved as TIFF or EPS (Encapsulated
Po stScript) files at a resolutio n abo ve 300 d pi. It i s
essential that the final version of the hard copy and the
disk are identical.
IV. Text
The literary style and subdivision of the text should
conform to that in a current issue of the Botanical Studies.
The first page should contain the Title, a running title
of no more than six words, the name(s) of the author(s),
the address(es) of the institution where the wo rk was
performed, the telephone and Fax numbers (and e-mail
address if available) of the corresponding author, and a
footnote indicating the present address of any author no
longer at the institution where the work was performed.
The next page should contain the Abstract and Keywords
(and if present, Abbreviations). The Introduction
should start on page three, followed by Materials and
Instructions to Authors
Methods, Results, and Discussion. After the body of the
manuscript, continue with Acknowledgments, Literature
Cited, Tables, Figure Legends, and Footnotes.
P ap ers o n taxo n om y sh ou ld fo ll o w t he st yl e of
Systematic Botany i n regard t o citati ons, k ey s, and
descriptions of taxa.
An abstract (no m ore than t hree hu nd red word s)
will be published at the beginning of each paper. Avoid
ab brev iati on s (excep t ch em ical and ph ysi cal un its)
and referen ces. Giv e the scienti fic n ames, and where
applicable, the cultivar or variety of the plants used.
Chinese Abstract: A Chinese abstract with keywords is
necessary. The Botanical Studies will provide translation
for those unable to write in Chinese.
Please suggest no more than ten keywords for the
paper. These follow the abstract, in alphabetical order, and
should characterize the scope of the paper, the principal
plant materials (scientific names only) if not too many,
and any special techniques used.
Literature Cited
Author citations in the text take the form: (Rossman,
1994), Rossman (1994), Rossman and Pianka (1994a,b),
(Rossman and Piank a, 1 994), Rossman et al. (19 94),
(Ro ssman et al., 19 94 ). If several papers are cit ed
simultaneously, they should be put in chronologically, e.g.
(Pikaard et al., 1987; Mignery et al., 1988). Put the list of
citations in alphabetical order by surname of principal
author. Use the following standard forms of citation:
a) Articles from journals and other serial publications
Chen, L.F.O., M.C. Cheng, and S.C.G. Chen. 1987. Similarity
and diversity of seed proteins in rice varieties. Bot. Bull.
Acad. Sin. 28: 169-183.
b) Articles from non-serial collective publications
Marschner, H. 1983. General introduction to the mineral nutri-
tion of Plants. In A. Lauchli and R.L. Bieleski (eds.), Inor-
ganic Plant Nutrition. Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology,
new series, Vol. 15a. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg,
New York, Tokyo, pp. 5-60.
c) Books
Iwatsuki, K., P.H. Raven, and W.J. Bock (eds.). 1986. Modern
Aspects of Species. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, 240
Salisbury, F.B. and C.W. Ross. 1985. Plant Physiology, 3rd edn.
Wadsworth, Belmont, California.
Su bmi t tables (each in a separate d isk fil e) with
an ap p rop ri ate leg en d at th e h ead , an d n um ber ed
co nsecu tiv ely wit h arab ic nu merals in the o rder in
which they are first referenced in the text. Plan tables
to fit either one or two column widths (8.2 or 17.1 cm),
and to be no taller than 21.5 cm on the printed page
(including the legend). Do not use the table feature of
your wordprocessor. Format tables using only space and
tab characters, and draw lines with dashes (do not draw
vertical lines). Each table must be referred to in the text.
Indicate the preferred location of the table in the text.
Indicate footnotes to tables by lower-case, superscript
letters, beginning with .a・ in each table.
Figure Legends
Submit a legend for each figure. Each legend must
contain sufficient explanation to be meaningful without
cross-referencing with the text. The legends are part of
the text, not of the figures, and should be listed at the end
of the manuscript, starting on a new page.
V. Illustrations
Limit the number of illustrations (graphs, diagrams,
photographs) to the minimum needed to clarify the text.
The figure number, the author・s name, and an indication
of orientation should be written lightly with a soft, black
pencil on all figures submitted, either in the margin or
on the back. Lettering must be provided by the author.
All elements in the drawing should be large enough to
withstand reduction. Both axes of graphs must be labeled.
The vertical axis must be labeled sideways and read from
bottom to top.
Photographs mu st be of high quality, exh ibit high
con trast, and be p ri nted o n glazed paper. Trim them
neatly at right angles to show only essential features.
Photomicrographs must have an internal, labeled, scale
marker, and the magnification must also be stated in the
legend. Plan photographs or groups of photographs to fit
either one or two column widths (8.2 or 17.1 cm), and to
be no taller than 21.5 cm on the printed page (including
the legend). Neatly mount them on a white card, with
no space bet ween the ind ividual print. Irregularly or
asymm etrical ly arrang ed g roups of p hoto grap hs will
not be accepted. L et ter th e i nd ividu al ph oto gra ph s
alphabetically in capitals. Citation in the text should take
the form of .Figure 1A・ and .Figures 3, 4B, and 6・. Submit
original photographs for publication and photocopies for
each reviewer・s manuscript.
VI. Offprints
Fifty offprints of each article are provided free of
charge to the corresponding author, who is responsible
for distributing them among the co-authors. If necessary,
additional copies may be obtained at cost if ordered when
the page proofs are returned.
Botanical Studies (2007) 48: 1-11.
In the printed version of this paper, the following errors
Pag e 1 , l in e 3 , "Han -Nin g CHUAN" sh ou l d read :
"Han-Ning CHUANG".