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Instructions to Authors (revised July 2009)

I. Copyright / II.Submission of Manuscripts / III. Format for Accepted Manuscripts
IV. Text / V. Illustrations /
VI. Offprints / VII. PDF Link

       The Botanical Studies, published quarterly, welcomes submission of both original papers and review papers on all aspects of plant science. Manuscripts submitted to the Botanical Studies must be previously unpublished. Reviews may be either invited or unsolicited. All work must be submitted in English. There are no page charges except for color printing (US$ 150 per page), which will be defrayed by the authors.

I. Copyright
       By submitting a manuscript to Botanical Studies, the author(s) agrees that upon acceptance for publication in the Botanical Studies, the copyright to the entire manuscript becomes the property of the Institute of Plant and Microbial Biology, Academia Sinica, Taiwan. If the author(s) does not have clear title to the copyright of any part of the manuscript, written permission to publish must be acquired from the copyright holder and presented to the editor of the Botanical Studies.

       Permission for fair use of Documents (such as articles, information documents) from the Server is granted for teaching, research, scholarly or personal uses. Documents must not be copied or posted on any network computer, republished or broadcasted in any medium. Legitimate quotations must be accompanied by a complete reference to the originating journal and to the Web server. Use for any other purpose needs permission from the editor of the Botanical Studies.

II. Submission of Manuscripts
       Manuscripts should be submitted in electronic format by post, electronic-mail, or manuscripts should be submitted both PDF (Adobe Acrobat) file and corresponding Word file. All manuscripts should be accompanied by a covering letter.

       This form of submission will expedite the processing of the paper because it is the format used for reviewing. Manuscripts not submitted in PDF format must be in one of our specified
formats and will be returned to the corresponding author as a PDF file for approval before being sent to referees. IMPORTANT: Note that Chinese, Japanese, and Korean fonts must be imbedded in a PDF document file when submitted, otherwise the editorial office may not be able to view the submitted manuscript.

By post:

       Send the disk and two high quality, one column, double-spaced printouts to the managing editor at:

    Editorial Office
    Botanical Studies
    Institute of Plant and Microbial Biology, Academia Sinica
    Taipei, Taiwan 11529
      We can accept CD-ROM (PC formatted). Please identify the disk by labelling it with the names of the authors, title of the manuscript and date of submittion.

Via email:
    Manuscripts should be sent to:
    For manuscript file(s) exceeding 10 MB, the on-line submission is not recommended.
Other formats
       Manuscripts not submitted in PDF should be prepared using Microsoft Word. All elements should be included in one single file (Title Page, Abstract, Text, References, Figure Legends, Tables and Figures). Alternatively, send an RTF (Rich Text Format) file. If figures are not included in the text, they should be submitted as JPG, GIF, and should be clearly numbered. If figures (and photographs) are not available electronically, please send one high-quality hard copy suitable for scanning.

Covering Letter
      In the covering letter authors should state that all the material is original (excluding Reviews), that no part has been submitted for publication elsewhere, and that all authors have agreed to submission. Other additional information may be included, e.g. section heading for the manuscript to appear in the journal. IMPORTANT: Do not include the covering letter in the body of the manuscript!

III. Format for Accepted Manuscripts
       Authors of accepted manuscripts will be asked to supply one high quality, double-spaced printouts together with an electronic copy. At that stage, the file containing all the text elements (Title Page, Abstract, Text, References, Figure Legends and Tables) should be provided as Microsoft Word, WordPerfect for the RTF. Figures should be saved as TIFF or EPS (Encapsulated PostScript) files at a resolution above 300 dpi. It is essential that the final version of the hard copy and the disk are identical.

IV. Text
       The literary style and subdivision of the text should conform to that in a current issue of the Botanical Studies. The first page should contain the Title, a running title of no more than six words, the name(s) of the author(s), the address(es) of the institution where the work was performed, the telephone and Fax numbers (and e-mail address if available) of the corresponding author, and a footnote indicating the present address of any author no longer at the institution where the work was performed. The next page should contain the Abstract and Keywords (and if present, Abbreviations). The Introduction should start on page three, followed by Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion. After the body of the manuscript, continue with Acknowledgments, Literature Cited, Tables, Figure Legends, and Footnotes.

       Papers on taxonomy should follow the style of
Systematic Botany in regard to citations, keys, and descriptions of taxa. There is an editorial requirement soliciting an isotype (if not available, a paratype) specimen to deposit at the Herbarium of Academia Sinica, Taipei (HAST) for novelties published in the Botanical Studies.

       An abstract (no more than three hundred words) will be published at the beginning of each paper. Avoid abbreviations (except chemical and physical units) and references. Give the scientific names, and where applicable, the cultivar or variety of the plants used.

       Chinese Abstract: A Chinese abstract with keywords is necessary. The Botanical Studies will provide translation for those unable to write in Chinese.

       Please suggest no more than ten keywords for the paper. These follow the abstract, in alphabetical order, and should characterize the scope of the paper, the principal plant materials (scientific names only) if not too many, and any special techniques used.

Literature Cited
       Author citations in the text take the form: (Rossman, 1994), Rossman (1994), Rossman and Pianka (1994a,b), (Rossman and Pianka, 1994), Rossman et al. (1994), (Rossman et al., 1994). If several papers are cited simultaneously, they should be put in chronologically, e.g. (Pikaard et al., 1987; Mignery et al., 1988). Put the list of citations in alphabetical order by surname of the principal author. Use the following standard forms of citation:

a) Articles from journals and other serial publications
    Chen, L.F.O., M.C. Cheng, and S.C.G. Chen. 1987. Similarity and diversity of seed proteins in rice varieties. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 28: 169-183.
b) Articles from non-serial collective publications
    Marschner, H. 1983. General introduction to the mineral nutrition of Plants. In A. Lauchli and R.L. Bieleski (eds.), Inorganic Plant Nutrition. Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, new series, Vol. 15a. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Tokyo, pp. 5-60.
c) Books
    Iwatsuki, K., P.H. Raven, and W.J. Bock (eds.). 1986. Modern Aspects of Species. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, 240 pp.
Salisbury, F.B. and C.W. Ross. 1985. Plant Physiology, 3rd edn. Wadsworth, Belmont, California.

       Submit tables (each in a separate file) with an appropriate legend at the head, and numbered consecutively with arabic numerals in the order in which they are first referenced in the text. Plan tables to fit either one or two column widths (8.2 or 17.1 cm), and to be no taller than 21.5 cm on the printed page (including the legend). Do not use the table feature of your wordprocessor. Format tables using only space and tab characters, and draw lines with dashes (do not draw vertical lines). Each table must be referred to in the text. Indicate the preferred location of the table in the text. Indicate footnotes to tables by lower-case, superscript letters, beginning with 'a' in each table.

Figure Legends
       Submit a legend for each figure. Each legend must contain sufficient explanation to be meaningful without cross-referencing with the text. The legends are part of the text, not of the figures, and should be listed at the end of the manuscript, starting on a new page.

V. Illustrations  
       Limit the number of illustrations (graphs, diagrams, photographs) to the minimum needed to clarify the text. The figure number, the author's name, and an indication of orientation should be written lightly with a soft, black pencil on all figures submitted, either in the margin or on the back. Lettering must be provided by the author. All elements in the drawing should be large enough to withstand reduction. Both axes of graphs must be labeled. The vertical axis must be labeled sideways and read from bottom to top.

       Photographs must be of high quality, exhibit high contrast, and be printed on glazed paper. Trim them neatly at right angles to show only essential features. Photomicrographs must have an internal, labeled, scale marker, and the magnification must also be stated in the legend. Plan photographs or groups of photographs to fit either one or two column widths (8.2 or 17.1 cm), and to be no taller than 21.5 cm on the printed page (including the legend). Neatly mount them on a white card, with no space between the individual print. Irregularly or asymmetrically arranged groups of photographs will not be accepted. Letter the individual photographs alphabetically in capitals. Citation in the text should take the form of 'Figure 1A' and 'Figures 3, 4B, and 6'. Submit original photographs for publication and photocopies for each reviewer's manuscript.

VI. Offprints
       Fifty offprints of each article are provided free of charge to the corresponding author, who is responsible for distributing them among the co-authors. Additional copies may be obtained at cost if ordered when the page proofs are returned.

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