Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. (1999) 40: 329-332

Hsu and Kuoh Cayratia maritima, new to Taiwan

Cayratia maritima B. R. Jackes (Vitaceae), a new addition to the flora of Taiwan

Tsai-Wen Hsu1,3 and Chang-Sheng Kuoh2

1Department of Botany, Taiwan Endemic Species Research Institute, Nantou 552, Taiwan

2Department of Biology, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 700, Taiwan

(Received August 28, 1998; Accepted January 5, 1999)

Abstract. In addition to Cayratia japonica (Thunb.) Gagnep., the only species previously recorded from Taiwan, we report a second species, C. maritima B. R. Jackes, which was collected from the islet of Lutao. Cayratia maritima is easily distinguished from Cayratia japonica in having three leaflets in mature leaves. The populations from Lutao represent the northern distributional limit of Cayratia maritima, which was previously known from tropical Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands.

Keywords: Cayratia japonica; Cayratia maritima; New record; Taiwan; Vitaceae.


Cayratia, a genus of Vitaceae consisting of 63 species (Jackes, 1987), is distributed mostly in tropical and subtropical Africa, Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. This genus is characterized by axillary inflorescences with bisexual, tetramerous flowers. Only one species, Cayratia japonica, was previously recorded from Taiwan (Lu, 1977, 1993; Ying, 1995). Here we report a second species, C. maritima B. R. Jackes, which was recently found on the islet Lutao when a botanical inventory was made. Cayratia maritima may be distinguished by the presence of three leaflets, compared with the five to seven leaflets in Cayratia japonica.

Taxonomy of Cayratia in Taiwan

Cayratia A. L. Jussieu in Dict. Hist. Nat. Sci. 10: 103. 1818, nom. cons.; Dict. Class. Hist. Nat. 4: 46. 1823; Gagnepain, Notul. Syst. (Paris) 1(11): 346. 1911. TYPE: Cayratia pedata (Lour.) Jussieu ex Gagnepain, Notul. Syst. (Paris) 1(11): 346. 1911.

Columella Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. 85. 1790.

Climbing shrubs; tendrils leaf-opposed, usually branched. Leaves alternate, compound, 3-7-foliolate pinnate or pedate. Stipules 2. Inflorescence axillary, corymbose or umbellate. Flower bisexual, tetramerous. Calyx cup-shaped, indistinct. Petals valvate, spreading. Stamens inserted on the receptacle at the base of the disc, oppo

site the petals. Disc adnate to and entirely surrounding the ovary, 4-lobed. Ovary 2-locular; style conical, stigma minute. Fruit a 2-4-seeded berry.

About 63 species (Jackes, 1987) in tropical and subtropical areas of Africa, Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. Two species in Taiwan.

Key to the Species

1. Leaflets 3 C. maritima

1. Leaflets 5-7 C. japonica

1. Cayratia japonica (Thunb. ex Murray) Gagnepain, Notul. Syst. (Paris) 1(11): 349. 1911; Liu, Ill. Nat. Intr. Lign. Pl. Taiwan 2: 849. f. 693. 1962; Li, Woody Fl. Taiwan 523. 1963; Lu, Fl. Taiwan 3: 668. 1977; Lu, Fl. Taiwan, ed. 2, 3: 699. 1993; Ying, Col. Ill. Fl. Taiwan 5: 584. 1995. QIJ Figure 1

Vitis japonica Thunb., ex Murray, Syst. Veg. (ed. 14) 244. 1784.

Cissus japonica (Thunb. ex Murray) Wild., Sp. Pl. 1(2): 659. 1797.

Causania japonica (Thunb. ex Murray) Raf., Sylva Tellar. 87. 1838.

Columella japonica (Thunb. ex Murray) Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. Bot. 8: 145. 1918.

Cissus tenuifolia F. Heyne in Wall. List N. 6022. 1831. nom. nud.

Vitis tenuifolia (F. Heyne) Laws in Hook, f. Fl. Brit. Ind. 1: 660. 1875. nom. illeg.

Cissus tenuifolia F. Heyne ex Planch., Monogr. Phan. 5: 563. 1887.

3Corresponding author. Tel: +886-49761331 ext. 230; Fax: +886-49761582; E-mail:

Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, Vol. 40, 1999

County Rd. #128, 5.5 km west of intersection of Freeway #1 and Co. Rd. #128., 125 m alt., Peng 11562 (HAST); TAICHUNG: Tso-lung-pu Hsu 4671 (TAI); Chingshui, Nanshan Temple, Yang 912 (TAI); CHANGHUA: Chichow farm, Hsu 4746 (TAI); Yuanlin, 29 Mar 1991 Hsiao s.n. (PPI); NANTOU: en route from Tungpu Hot Spring to Bunong Aborignal Dwelling, 1,200-1,100 m alt., Peng 8227 (HAST); YUNLIN: Houan, Yang 483 (TAI); Mailiao, Chang 18477 (PPI); CHIAYI: Chuchi, along a creek nearby Hsiangkuang Temple, 250-400 m alt., Lin 456 (HAST); KAOHSIUNG: Taoyuan, en route from Tengchih to Liukuei, 1,500-2,000 m alt., Chen 586 (HAST); PINGTUNG: Pingtung city, Chung 734 (PPI); ILAN: Lotung, Yamamoto 3732 (TAI); HUALIEN: Yuli, Yamamoto 3110 (TAI).

Distribution and notes. Widespread in Asia extending from Annam, north to Japan and east to New Caledonia. The species is commonly found growing in primary forests of low to medium elevations in Taiwan.

Based on narrower leaflets of specimens collected from northern Taiwan, Masamune (1964) described a new taxon, C. japonica var. taiwaniana. However, that name is illegitimate, as he did not designate any type materials. Our observations indicate that the leaf morphology of C. japonica is quite variable and that shape and size may vary even within the same individual. Since C. japonica var. taiwaniana lies within the range of leaf morphology, we do not recognize this variety.

2. Cayratia maritima B. R. Jackes, Austrobaileya 2: 366. 1987. TYPE: Australia: Lakefield, 26 Jun 1982, B. R. Jackes s. n. (holotype: BRI).QIJ Figure 2

Scrambling vine, stems angular, simple hairs at nodes when young. Tendrils 2-3-fid, glabrous. Leaf trifoliolate. Central leaflet ovate to rhomboid, apex acuminate; lateral leaflets oblique, sometimes lobed, ca. 2-5 cm long and 1.5-2.5 cm wide. Margins crenulate-serrate. Upper surface glabrous at maturity except for the vertically compressed midrib which bears uniseriate hooked hairs. Lower surface usually glabrous, occasionally hooked hairs are present on veins near the junction of the petiole and lamina. Petiole 2-4 cm long. Stipules 2, triangular. Inflorescence axillary, 3-5 primary branches cymose. Calyx papillose. Petals papillose, valvate, spreading.

Specimens examined. TAIWAN. TAITUNG: Lutao, Seaslugs Plain (Haisenping), seaside hot spring, Lin 3071 (TNM); Lutao, seaside, 30 Jun 1998 Huang s.n (HAST); Chang 3972, 15974 (PPI); Huang 6972 (TAI).

Distribution and notes. Indonesia, New Guinea and neighbouring Pacific Islands. In Taiwan, only found on islet of Lutao, along coastlines.

This species is easily distinguished from C. japonica in having three leaflets, and readily distinguished from the related C. trifolia (L.) Domin by the 2-3-fid (vs. 4-5-fid) tendrils, and the mature leaves that are glabrous except for hooked hairs on the adaxial midrib. Previously this species was known only from the Southern Hemisphere.

Figure 1. Distribution of Cayratia japonica (l), Cayratia maritima ().

Vitis leucocarpa Hay., Icon. Pl. Formosana 3: 63. 1913.

Cissus japonica var. dentata Makino, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 23: 249. 1909.

Cayratia japonica var. dentata (Makino) Honda, Nom. Pl. Jap. 504. 1939.

Cayratia japonica var. taiwaniana Masamune, J. Geobot. 13: 3. 1964. nom. illeg.

Scrambling vine; tendrils leaf-opposed, 2-3-fid. Leaf pedate with 5 leaflets. Central leaflet ovate to broadly-lanceolate, apex acute, about 4-8 cm long and 2-4 cm broad; lateral leaflets oblique; margins serrate; petioles 4-7 cm long. Inflorescence axillary, corymbose or umbellate. Petals ovate. Stamens 4, opposite the petals, anthers ellipsoid. Style conical, short, stigma minute. Fruit rounded, with 2-4-seeds, endosperm in transverse section T-shaped

Specimen examined. TAIWAN. TAIPEI: Keelong, Masamune 88 (TAI); Tatungshan, Kuo 9025 (TAI); Paisawan, Huang 4992 (TAI); Chingmei, Huang 4533 (TAI); Tanshui, Cheng 658 (TAI); Kuanyinshan, Wu 1035 (TAI); HSINCHU: Hengshan, along Yulo Hsi (River), 140 m alt., Peng 13298 (HAST); Chutung, along Yulo-Hsi (River), 140 m alt., Leu 522 (HAST); MIAOLI: between Tunglo and Wumeikeng, a hilly burial ground, along

Hsu and Kuoh Cayratia maritima, new to Taiwan

Figure 2. Cayratia maritima B. R. Jackes. 1, Habit; 2, Sepal; 3, Flower bud; 4, Hooked hairs on the midrib. (All from Lin 3071).

Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, Vol. 40, 1999

Obviously C. maritima has a tropical origin. Populations of Lutao, a tropical islet, represent the northern limit in distribution. The discovery of this species in Taiwan extends its distributional range.

Acknowledgements. We are indebted to the curators of TNM for the loan of materials of Cayratia maritima. We thank Prof. Ching-I Peng for getting the loan via HAST.

Literature Cited

Jackes, B.R. 1987. Revision of the Australian Vitaceae, 2. Cayratia Juss. Austrobaileya 2: 365-379.

Lu, F.Y. 1977. Vitaceae. In H.L. Li, T.S. Liu, T.C. Huang, T. Koyama and C. E. Devol (eds.), Flora of Taiwan. vol. III. Epoch, Taipei, pp. 664-680.

Lu, F.Y. 1993. Vitaceae. In T.C. Huang, C.F. Huang, Z.Y. Li, H.C. Lo, H. Ohashi, C.F. Shen and C.J. Wang (eds.), Flora of Taiwan. ed. 2. Vol. III, Committee of Flora of Taiwan, Taipei, pp. 696-710.

Masamune, G. 1964. Icones plantarum Asiaticarum. J. Geobot.13: 3.

Ying, S.S. 1995. Coloured Illustrated Flora of Taiwan, vol. 5. Published by the Author, Taipei, pp. 566-590.



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